Why You Should Stop Putting on a Happy Face

At some point, we have probably all shoved down a negative feeling and put on a happy face, even when we didn’t feel like it. What we probably didn’t consider is the psychological cost of masking how we really feel.

At some point, we have probably all shoved down a negative feeling and put on a happy face, even when we didn’t feel like it. What we probably didn’t consider is the psychological cost of masking how we really feel.

Conducting two separate studies, and using parental negative emotion suppression and positive emotion amplification as a barometer, Dr. Bonnie Le and Dr. Emily Impett of the University of Toronto Mississauga and their colleagues looked to find out.

In the first experiment, 162 parents were asked to recall past caregiving experiences before answering a series of questions.

“By examining the regulation of positive and negative emotions in tandem, our results can shed light on the unique effects of using each strategy,” explains Le (Le, 2018).

According to Impett, when parents attempted to hide their negative emotion expression and overexpress their positive emotions (put on a happy face) with their children, it came at a cost: the parents felt worse themselves (Le et al., 2018).

Moreover, the parents reported experiencing lower authenticity, emotional well-being, relationship quality, and responsiveness to their children’s needs when they suppressed negative emotions and amplified positive emotions when providing care to their children.

In the second study, the researchers asked 118 parents to answer open-ended questions regarding their daily caregiving experiences over the course of ten days.

Again, the results were similar: more challenging caregiving led to more suppression of negative feelings and amplification of positive feelings (Le et al., 2018).

Le summarizes the results, “Parents experienced costs when regulating their emotions in these ways because they felt less authentic, or true to themselves. It is important to note that amplifying positive emotions was relatively more costly to engage in, indicating that controlling emotions in ways that may seem beneficial in the context of caring for children can come at a cost” (Le, 2018).

For Impett and her team, the findings offer one clear takeaway: when parents express more positive emotions than they genuinely feel and mask their negative emotions, they feel worse. We will all have negative feelings at some time or another and the point is not to deny them, but rather find ways to accept them as normal – or even better, use them to propel psychological growth.

Related Online Continuing Education (CE) Courses:

Leveraging Adversity: Turning Setbacks into Springboards is a 6-hour online continuing education (CE) course that gives clinicians the tools they need to help their clients face adversity from a growth perspective and learn how to use setbacks to spring forward, and ignite growth.

Building Resilience in your Young Client is a 3-hour online continuing education (CE) course that offers a wide variety of resilience interventions that can be used in therapy, school, and home settings.

Finding Happiness: Positive Interventions in Therapy is a 4-hour online continuing education (CE) course that explores the concept of happiness, from common myths to the overriding factors that directly increase our feelings of contentment.


Professional Development Resources is approved by the American Psychological Association (APA) to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. Professional Development Resources maintains responsibility for this program and its content. Professional Development Resources is also approved by the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC ACEP #5590); the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB Provider #1046, ACE Program); the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA Provider #3159); the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR Provider #PR001); the Alabama State Board of Occupational Therapy; the Florida Boards of Social Work, Mental Health Counseling and Marriage and Family Therapy (#BAP346), Psychology & School Psychology (#50-1635), Dietetics & Nutrition (#50-1635), and Occupational Therapy Practice (#34); the Georgia State Board of Occupational Therapy; the New York State Education Department’s State Board for Mental Health Practitioners as an approved provider of continuing education for licensed mental health counselors (#MHC-0135); the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board (#RCST100501); the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs (#193); the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists (#114) and State Board of Social Worker Examiners (#5678); and is CE Broker compliant (all courses are reported within a few days of completion).

Enjoy 20% off all online continuing education (CE/CEU) courses @pdresources.orgClick here for details.

Earn CE Wherever YOU Love to Be!

Clinical Supervision for SLPs – Online CEUs

Clinical Supervision for SLPs and Audiologists is a new 2-hour online continuing education (CEU) course that presents research on best practices in supervision as required by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) in 2020.

Clinical Supervision for SLPs & Audiologists is a new 2-hour online CEU course that presents research on best practices in supervision as required by ASHA in 2020.

We will take a brief look at different models of supervision including the Supervision, Questioning and Feedback (SQF) Model of Clinical Teaching, the Cognitive Apprenticeship Instructional ModelGeller’s Integrative Model, and Anderson’s Continuum of Supervision as we discuss the clinical educator’s / instructor’s role in the supervisory process and the skills required to supervise effectively.

Topics presented include the mandatory content required by ASHA Certification and will address deliberate practice, giving feedback, self-assessment, ethics, social media, the use of technology in supervision and telepractice, diversity awareness, and the accommodation of persons with disabilities.

The ASHA supervisory topic list is much too extensive to cover every aspect in detail. Clinical Supervision for SLPs and Audiologists is an overview, which can lead the audiologist or speech-language pathologist to identify areas for deeper study. Course #21-37 | 2020 | 42 pages | 15 posttest questions

Click here to learn more.

Clinical Supervision for SLPs is an online course that provides instant access to the course materials (PDF download) and CE test. The course is text-based (reading) and the CE test is open-book (you can print the test to mark your answers on it while reading the course document).

Successful completion of the online CE test (80% required to pass, 3 chances to take) and course evaluation are required to earn a certificate of completion. Click here to learn more.

Have a question? Contact us. We’re here to help!

Professional Development Resources is a nonprofit educational corporation 501(c)(3) organized in 1992. We are approved
by the Continuing Education Board of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA Provider #AAUM) to provide continuing education activities in speech-language pathology and audiology. See course page for number of ASHA CEUs, instructional level and content area. ASHA CE provider approval does not imply endorsement of course content, specific products or clinical procedures. CEUs are awarded by the ASHA CE Registry upon receipt of the CEU Participant Form from the ASHA Approved CE Provider (we report to ASHA monthly). Professional Development Resources is also approved by the Florida Board of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology (Provider #50-1635) and the Ohio Board of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology and is CE Broker compliant (all courses are reported within a few days of completion).

Target AudienceSpeech-Language Pathologists (SLPs) & Audiologists

Enjoy 20% off all online continuing education (CE/CEU) courses @pdresources.orgClick here for details.

Earn CE Wherever YOU Love to Be!

Therapy Tidbits – Spring 2020 Online CE for Psychologists


Therapy Tidbits – Spring 2020
 is a new 1-hour online continuing education (CE) course comprised of select articles from the Spring 2020 issue of The National Psychologist, a private, independent, quarterly newspaper intended to keep psychologists informed about practice issues.

Therapy Tidbits - Spring 2020

The articles included in this course are:

  • Psychologists Adjust to World with Coronavirus – Discusses the reasons why offering telemental health services will be beneficial for psychologists and their patients.
  • July 1 is Target Date for First PSYPACT Applications – Provides an overview of PSYPACT and the steps to take if you are interested in applying to practice telepsychology or temporarily work face-to-face across state lines (in states that have approved the PSYPACT legislation).
  • Psychologists Consider Return on Investment – Discusses the Merit Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) and some of the upcoming changes in 2020.
  • Mitchell Testifies in Preliminary Hearing – An update of the court case in which James Mitchell, PhD, and John Jessen, PhD, were accused of designing torturous interrogation methods for CIA prisoners during interrogations following the 9/11 attacks.
  • Touching Not Always a Violation – Highlights the need for discrepancy and compassion when supporting clients and lists the Zur Institute’s Risk Management guidelines.
  • Child Porn Poses Ethical Dilemma – Clarifies the conflict that a therapist faces when a patient reveals he is watching pornography online.
  • Associations Offer ECPs Many Advantages – Enumerates some of the benefits of joining your local, state, and/or national chapter of the American Psychological Association (APA).
  • The Insurance War on Psychodiagnostic Testing – Explains how insurance company protocols make testing of patients more and more difficult.
  • When to Update to the Newest Revision of a Test – Reviews guidance provided by professional associations on when to transition to the most current version of a psychological test.
  • Nation’s Largest Children’s Behavioral Health Center Opens – Describes the Big Lots Behavioral Health Pavillion’s Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio.

Course #11-36 | 2020 | 17 pages | 10 posttest questions

Click here to learn more.

Therapy Tidbits – Spring 2020 is an online course that provides instant access to the course materials (PDF download) and CE test. The course is text-based (reading) and the CE test is open-book (you can print the test to mark your answers on it while reading the course document).

Successful completion of the online CE test (80% required to pass, 3 chances to take) and course evaluation are required to earn a certificate of completion. Click here to learn more.

Have a question? Contact us. We’re here to help!

Professional Development Resources is a nonprofit educational corporation 501(c)(3) organized in 1992. We are approved to sponsor continuing education by the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC); the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB); the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA); the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA); the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR); the Alabama State Board of Occupational Therapy; the Florida Boards of Social Work, Mental Health Counseling and Marriage and Family Therapy, Psychology & School Psychology, Dietetics & Nutrition, Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, and Occupational Therapy Practice; the Georgia State Board of Occupational Therapy; the New York State Education Department’s State Board for Mental Health Practitioners as an approved provider of continuing education for licensed mental health counselors (#MHC-0135); the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board and Board of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology; the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs; the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists and State Board of Social Worker Examiners; and are CE Broker compliant (all courses are reported within a few days of completion).

“Professional Development Resources is approved by the American Psychological Association to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. Professional Development Resources maintains responsibility for this program and its content.”

PDR offers over 150 accredited online CE courses for healthcare professionals. 

Target AudiencePsychologistsSchool PsychologistsCounselorsSocial WorkersMarriage & Family Therapists (MFTs)Speech-Language Pathologists (SLPs)Occupational Therapists (OTs)Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDNs), and Teachers

Enjoy 20% off all online continuing education (CE/CEU) courses @pdresources.orgClick here for details.

Earn CE Wherever YOU Love to Be!

Self-Actualization in a Time of Social Isolation

The social isolation that has been imposed on us all as a result of the coronavirus COVID-19 may seem like a period of waiting. We are effectively stuck – without further notice.

Social Isolation

That is the physical reality. Yet the psychological reality is that the physical environment we find ourselves in need not determine our psychological milieu. In short, we need not be stuck in a psychological sense. We can grow psychologically, even in a time of social isolation.

Abraham Maslow defined self-actualization as “the desire for self-fulfillment, namely the tendency for him [the individual] to become actualized in what he is potentially.”

Maslow described self-actualization as a “desire” that makes us want to realize what we are capable of, to use the full extent of our strengths, and to realize our fullest potential. When we are pursuing self-actualization, explained Maslow, we are also pursuing our “true self.”

At its’ core, self-actualization is growth-motivated. The opposite of self-actualization then is the pursuit and expansion of our deficiencies.

But all self-actualization begins with two realizations: we are not at our full potential, and we want to realize our full potential.

The first one can be a challenge, yet the reality is that potential is very hard to predict. We simply do not know what we are capable of until we try. That, however, should be an inspiration. Inside of every person could be a fabulous artist, musician, dancer, writer, or athlete, waiting to be discovered.

Social isolation can be a time of self-reflection and growth - time to find the artist inside of us all.

The desire for self-actualization is something that, Maslow believed, exists in every person. For many of us, however, life gets in the way. We may simply do not have time to pursue what doesn’t pay the bills, get the house clean, raise the children, or feed the dog.

But you may have the time now. This prolonged period of social isolation can also be a period of reflection. A time to ask yourself if you are living the life you really want. To question the choices you have made, to consider what truly brings you the most joy, and to reflect on what is most important to you.

Sure, the pursuit of many of these things may not be possible at the moment. But the process of recognizing them is possible. You may find that there are things you have passed by without taking the time they deserve. You may find that you made choices more out of a sense of necessity than desire. And you may find that there are things that you would have done differently if you had a choice.

There may be many things that you cannot change. But what you can change is that you give yourself the time and the psychological space to recognize what is most important to you and to identify what you would most like to accomplish. All great things begin with a recognition of what we want. Now is your time to put your finger on it.

Related Online Continuing Education (CE) Course:

In the Zone: Finding Flow Through Positive Psychology is a 2-hour online continuing education (CE) course that offers a how-to guide on incorporating flow into everyday life. According to the CDC, four out of ten people have not discovered a satisfying life purpose. Further, the APA reports that most people suffer from moderate to high levels of stress, and according to SAMSHA, adult prescription medication abuse (primarily to counteract attention deficit disorders) is one of the most concerning health problems today. And while clinicians now have a host of resources to mitigate distress and reduce symptomatology, the question remains: how do clinicians move clients beyond baseline levels of functioning to a state of fulfillment imbued with a satisfying life purpose? The answer may lie in a universal condition with unexpected benefits…

This course will explore the concept of flow, also known as optimal performance, which is a condition we are all capable of, yet seldom cultivate. When in flow we experience a profound and dramatic shift in the way we experience ourselves, our capabilities, and the world around us. Our focus sharpens, our strengths are heightened, we feel an intense sense of euphoria and connection to the world around us, and we often realize capabilities we didn’t know were possible. For clients, flow doesn’t just help them become more capable, it dramatically improves their lives – teaching them not just to expect more from themselves, but how to cultivate the very conditions that make expecting more possible. This course, packed with exercises, tips, and tools, will demonstrate just how flow can be incorporated into your everyday life, and used to help your clients move from simply surviving to a life that harnesses and builds upon their own unique potential to thrive. Course 21-11 | 2016 | 30 pages | 15 posttest questions 

Professional Development Resources is a nonprofit educational corporation 501(c)(3) organized in 1992. We are approved to sponsor continuing education by the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC); the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB); the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA); the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA); the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR); the Alabama State Board of Occupational Therapy; the Florida Boards of Social Work, Mental Health Counseling and Marriage and Family Therapy, Psychology & School Psychology, Dietetics & Nutrition, Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, and Occupational Therapy Practice; the Georgia State Board of Occupational Therapy; the New York State Education Department’s State Board for Mental Health Practitioners as an approved provider of continuing education for licensed mental health counselors (#MHC-0135); the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board and Board of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology; the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs; the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists and State Board of Social Worker Examiners; and are CE Broker compliant (all courses are reported within a few days of completion).

Professional Development Resources is approved by the American Psychological Association to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. Professional Development Resources maintains responsibility for this program and its content.

PDR offers over 150 accredited online CE courses for healthcare professionals. 

Target AudiencePsychologistsSchool PsychologistsCounselorsSocial WorkersMarriage & Family Therapists (MFTs)Speech-Language Pathologists (SLPs)Occupational Therapists (OTs)Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDNs), and Teachers

Enjoy 20% off all online continuing education (CE/CEU) courses @pdresources.orgClick here for details.

Earn CE Wherever YOU Love to Be!

The Power of Skepticism and Why It Matters

Why are some people inclined to believe in various conspiracies and paranormal phenomena with no regard for skepticism?

“Our findings suggest that part of the reason may be that many people do not view it as sufficiently important to form their beliefs on rational grounds,” notesTomas Ståhl, a University of Illinois at Chicago social psychologist.

Skepticism may be viewed as the reliance on logic to form beliefs, and is essential to critical thinking and rational thought in healthcare practice.

While previous work in this area has indicated that people with higher cognitive ability – or a more analytic thinking style – are less inclined to believe in conspiracies and the paranormal. Ståhl wanted to know if other factors might influence a person’s tendency toward skepticism.

Working with Jan-Willem van Prooijen of Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, he conducted two online surveys with more than 300 respondents each to assess analytic thinking and the reliance on logic to form beliefs.

The first survey found that an analytic cognitive style was associated with weaker paranormal beliefs, conspiracy beliefs and conspiracy mentality. However, this was only the case among participants who strongly valued forming their beliefs based on logic and evidence (Ståhl et al., 2017).

“Reasonable skepticism about various conspiracy theories and paranormal phenomena does not only require a relatively high cognitive ability, but also strong motivation to be rational,” explains Ståhl.

“When the motivation to form your beliefs based on logic and evidence is not there, people with high cognitive ability are just as likely to believe in conspiracies and paranormal phenomena as people with lower cognitive ability” (Ståhl, 2017).

In the second survey, Ståhl and his team examined whether these effects were uniquely attributable to having an analytic cognitive style or whether they were explained by more general individual differences in cognitive ability. Results were more consistent with a general cognitive ability (Ståhl et al., 2017).

Interestingly, Ståhl notes that despite a century of better educational opportunities and increased intelligence scores in the U.S. population, unfounded beliefs remain pervasive in contemporary society. Moreover, from linking vaccines with autism to climate change skepticism, these widespread conspiracy theories and other unfounded beliefs can lead to harmful behavior, according to Ståhl.

“Many of these beliefs can, unfortunately, have detrimental consequences for individuals’ health choices, as well as for society as a whole,” he explains.

Whether in balancing theories that vaccines cause autism or in decreasing our tendency to endorse the paranormal, skepticism is what keeps our thinking checked by logic and free from unhinged, and in many cases, damaging beliefs.

Related Online Continuing Education (CE) Course:

The Power of Skepticism and Critical Thinking is a 3-hour online continuing education (CE/CEU) course that examines how positive skepticism and critical thinking are necessary in clinical practice.

The history of health care abounds with treatments that persisted (although they didn’t work) for many years without ever being seriously challenged. How did this happen? More to the point, how is it that this continues to happen today? At least a part of the answer can be found in a very long list of cognitive errors, fallacies, and biases that seem to be part of human nature. Human beings are endowed with the ability to reason and the need to find connections between things and events. The problem is that we have such a strong need to find connections that we sometimes see them even when they are not there. In health care, arriving at the wrong conclusion can be an error of life and death proportions.

This course defines and illustrates the many ways in which health professionals can fall prey to one or more thinking errors that can result in mistaken diagnoses, clinical errors, and reduced therapeutic success. Also reviewed are the powerful influences of propaganda, quackery, and pseudoscience. The antidote to thinking errors and pseudoscience is adherence to the sound principles of positive skepticism and critical thinking in clinical practice. This course offers the opportunity to uncover one’s own biases and learn new strategies and techniques for applying critical thinking skills. Included are how-to lists for evaluating new treatments, conference speakers, published studies, and internet content. Course #31-14 | 2019 | 56 pages | 20 posttest questions

Click here to learn more.

Professional Development Resources is a nonprofit educational corporation 501(c)(3) organized in 1992. We are approved to sponsor continuing education by the American Psychological Association (APA); the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC); the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB); the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA); the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA); the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR); the Alabama State Board of Occupational Therapy; the Florida Boards of Social Work, Mental Health Counseling and Marriage and Family Therapy, Psychology & School Psychology, Dietetics & Nutrition, Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, and Occupational Therapy Practice; the Georgia State Board of Occupational Therapy; the New York State Education Department’s State Board for Mental Health Practitioners as an approved provider of continuing education for licensed mental health counselors (#MHC-0135); the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board and Board of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology; the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs; the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists and State Board of Social Worker Examiners; and are CE Broker compliant (all courses are reported within a few days of completion).

PDR offers over 150 accredited online CE courses for healthcare professionals. 

Target AudiencePsychologistsSchool PsychologistsCounselorsSocial WorkersMarriage & Family Therapists (MFTs)Speech-Language Pathologists (SLPs)Occupational Therapists (OTs)Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDNs), and Teachers

Enjoy 20% off all online continuing education (CE/CEU) courses @pdresources.orgClick here for details.

Earn CE Wherever YOU Love to Be!

Therapy Tidbits – May/June 2019

Therapy Tidbits – May/June 2019 is a new 1-hour online continuing education (CE) course comprised of select articles from the May/June 2019 issue of The National Psychologist, a private, independent bi-monthly newspaper intended to keep psychologists informed about practice issues.

Therapy Tidbits – May/June 2019 is a 1-hour online continuing education (CE) course comprised of select articles from the May/June 2019 issue of The National Psychologist, a private, independent bi-monthly newspaper intended to keep psychologists informed about practice issues.

The articles included in Therapy Tidbits – May/June 2019 are:

  • Psychologists Face Denials, Delays in Testing Payments – Discusses the difficulties of receiving reimbursement following the update of Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for central nervous system assessments, and provides contact information for APA information and support.
  • Integrated Healthcare Requires Caution – Provides an overview of the modalities of integrated healthcare and discusses the importance of dilalogue between psychologists and other healthcare providers.
  • Using Testing Codes Requires Great Care – The author provides an explanation of the billing codes used in skilled nursing facilities.
  • Rescue Dogs Replace Lab Rats – Highlights the success of a program in which university students work with dogs from a local animal shelter.
  • ACA Less Friendly to Psychologists than Expected – Describes the ways in which the Affordable Care Act impacts upon the practice of Psychotherapy.
  • Former Opponent Now Favors RxP – The author explains why he feels it is beneficial for psychologists to have prescribing privileges.
  • Mass Shootings Unfairly Stigmatizing Mentally Ill – Highlights the issues surrounding media exposure and violent gun crimes and reminds psychologists of the ethical issues that should be considered regarding mental health and gun violence.
  • Roles Collide in Internship at Federal Prison – The author describes the many dual roll relationships she is experiencing as an intern for the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP).
  • Exposure Therapy is Fast and Effective – The author describes her experiences when learning exposure therapy and the benefits it can have for both the client and clinician.
  • Pope Calls for Psychological Tests – Discusses whether psychological testing to determine if a person is suited for a celibate life is of use.
  • Court Ruling Could Affect Psychologists – The author reflects upon the course rulings in the case of Byrne v Avery Center to highlight the difference between privilege and confidentiality when patient records are under subpoena.

Course #11-28 | 2019 | 19 pages | 10 posttest questions

Click here to learn more about Therapy Tidbits – May/June 2019.

Professional Development Resources is a nonprofit educational corporation 501(c)(3) organized in 1992. We are approved to sponsor continuing education by the American Psychological Association (APA); the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC); the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB); the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA); the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA); the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR); the Alabama State Board of Occupational Therapy; the Florida Boards of Social Work, Mental Health Counseling and Marriage and Family Therapy, Psychology & School Psychology, Dietetics & Nutrition, Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, and Occupational Therapy Practice; the Georgia State Board of Occupational Therapy; the New York State Education Department’s State Board for Mental Health Practitioners as an approved provider of continuing education for licensed mental health counselors (#MHC-0135); the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board and Board of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology; the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs; the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists and State Board of Social Worker Examiners; and are CE Broker compliant (all courses are reported within a few days of completion).

PDR offers over 150 accredited online CE courses for healthcare professionals. 

Target AudiencePsychologistsSchool PsychologistsCounselorsSocial WorkersMarriage & Family Therapists (MFTs)Speech-Language Pathologists (SLPs)Occupational Therapists (OTs)Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDNs), and Teachers

Enjoy 20% off all online continuing education (CE/CEU) courses @pdresources.orgClick here for details.

Earn CE Wherever YOU Love to Be!

Boosting Weight Loss with Mental Imagery

Mental imagery has been found to boost weight loss proving that losing weight begins with what we imagine it will look and feel like.

Weight Loss Requires Change

When it comes to weight loss, it seems there is no shortage of programs. And while they may vary in what types, amounts, and frequency of foods they incorporate, there is one thing they can all agree on – losing weight requires changing behavior.

However, just how to change behavior has been a long and troubled problem – a problem that Dr. Linda Solbrig from the School of Psychology at the University of Pittsburgh took a different approach to.

A Different Approach

Recruiting 141 participants, Solbrig allocated some of them to a Functional Imagery Training (FIT) group and some to a Motivational Interviewing (MI) group.

While MI is a technique that sees a counselor support someone to develop, highlight and verbalize their need or motivation for change, and their reasons for wanting to change, FIT goes one step further as it makes use of multisensory imagery to explore these changes by teaching clients how to elicit and practice motivational imagery themselves. Everyday behaviors are used to cue imagery practice until it becomes a cognitive habit.

In Solbrig’s study, the maximum contact time was four hours of individual consultation, and neither group received any additional dietary advice or information.

The Results?

After six months people who used the FIT intervention lost an average of 4.11kg, compared with an average of 0.74kg among the MI group, and after 12 months – six months after the intervention had finished – the FIT group continued to lose weight, with an average of 6.44kg lost compared with 0.67kg in the MI group (Solbrig et al., 2018)

“It’s fantastic that people lost significantly more weight on this intervention, as, unlike most studies, it provided no diet/physical activity advice or education. People were completely free in their choices and supported in what they wanted to do, not what a regimen prescribed” (Solbrig, 2018).

Dr Solbrig explained, “Most people agree that in order to lose weight, you need to eat less and exercise more, but in many cases, people simply aren’t motivated enough to heed this advice – however much they might agree with it. So FIT comes in with the key aim of encouraging someone to come up with their own imagery of what change might look and feel like to them, how it might be achieved and kept up, even when challenges arise” (Solbrig, 2018).

She continues, “We started with taking people through an exercise about a lemon. We asked them to imagine seeing it, touching it, juicing it, drinking the juice and juice accidently squirting in their eye, to emphasize how emotional and tight to our physical sensations imagery is. From there we are able to encourage them to fully imagine and embrace their own goals. Not just ‘imagine how good it would be to lose weight’ but, for example, ‘what would losing weight enable you to do that you can’t do now? What would that look / sound / smell like?’, and encourage them to use all of their senses” (Solbrig, 2018).

“FIT is based on two decades of research showing that mental imagery is more strongly emotionally charged than other types of thought. It uses imagery to strengthen people’s motivation and confidence to achieve their goals, and teaches people how to do this for themselves, so they can stay motivated even when faced with challenges. We were very excited to see that our intervention achieved exactly what we had hoped for and that it helped our participants achieve their goals and most importantly to maintain them” (Andrade, 2018).

What we can learn from studies like this is that losing weight begins with what we imagine it will look and feel like.

Related Online Continuing Education (CE) Courses:

Behavioral Strategies for Weight Loss is a 2-hour online continuing education (CE) course that exposes the many thought errors that confound the problem of weight loss and demonstrates how when we use behavioral strategies – known as commitment devices – we change the game of weight loss.

While obesity is arguably the largest health problem our nation faces today, it is not a problem that is exclusive to those who suffer weight gain. For therapists and counselors who work with those who wish to lose weight, there is ample information about diet and exercise; however, one very large problem remains. How do therapists get their clients to use this information? Packed with exercises therapists can use with their clients to increase self-control, resist impulses, improve decision making and harness accountability, this course will not just provide therapists with the tools they need to help their clients change the way they think about weight loss, but ultimately, the outcome they arrive at. Course #21-13 | 2016 | 31 pages | 15 posttest questions

Beyond Calories & Exercise: Eliminating Self-Defeating Behaviors is a 5-hour online continuing education (CE) course that “walks” readers through the process of replacing their self-defeating weight issues with healthy, positive, and productive life-style behaviors. It moves beyond the “burn more calories than you consume” concept to encompass the emotional aspects of eating and of gaining and losing weight. Through 16 included exercises, you will learn how to identify your self-defeating behaviors (SDBs), analyze and understand them, and then replace them with life-giving actions that lead to permanent behavioral change. Course #50-10 | 2013 | 49 pages | 35 posttest questions

Why Diets Fail: The Myth of Willpower is a 1-hour audio continuing education (CE) course that explains why diets fail and provides strategies for what does work. Clinicians continue to recommend diets to their patients, even though diets don’t lead to long-term weight loss. In this course, Dr. Mann will describe the evidence on why diets don’t work in the long term, give the biological reasons why diets fail, explain why willpower is not the problem, and then give strategies for healthy eating that do not require dieting or willpower.

Dr. Mann is uniquely qualified to provide the real truth about dieting, eating, obesity, and self-control. She is a widely cited expert whose research has been funded by the NIH, USDA, and NASA, and is published in dozens of scholarly journals. She does not run a diet clinic or test diets and she has never taken a penny from commercial diet companies, or sat on their boards of directors, or endorsed one of their products. Because of this, her livelihood, research funding, and reputation are not dependent on her reporting that diets work or that obesity is unhealthy. This sets her apart from nearly all diet and obesity researchers and allows her to speak the truth about these topics, which she does with abandon. Course #11-07 | 2017 | 10 posttest questions

Professional Development Resources is a nonprofit educational corporation 501(c)(3) organized in 1992. We are approved to sponsor continuing education by the American Psychological Association (APA); the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC); the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB); the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA); the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA); the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR); the Alabama State Board of Occupational Therapy; the Florida Boards of Social Work, Mental Health Counseling and Marriage and Family Therapy, Psychology & School Psychology, Dietetics & Nutrition, Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, and Occupational Therapy Practice; the Georgia State Board of Occupational Therapy; the New York State Education Department’s State Board for Mental Health Practitioners as an approved provider of continuing education for licensed mental health counselors (#MHC-0135); the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board and Board of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology; the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs; the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists and State Board of Social Worker Examiners; and are CE Broker compliant (all courses are reported within a few days of completion).

Earn CE Wherever YOU Love to Be!

Treatment for Anxiety Disorders in Children

Course excerpt from Anxiety in Children

Treatment for Anxiety in ChildrenAnxiety disorders in children are very common, usually chronic, and frequently disabling. Since everyone experiences anxiety at some point, the first step is to determine whether the disorder falls within the bounds of “normal” anxiety, or whether it is something that requires professional treatment.

Parents often need help making this determination. Mental health professionals can present the following checklist to parents so that they can determine if they need to access medical or psychological help for their child:

  • Are you spending enormous amounts of time reassuring your child about engaging in normal activities?
  • Is your child’s anxiety out of sync with what is expected developmentally?
  • Is your child having difficulty with or have you noticed a significant change with sleeping, eating, or intrusive physical symptoms?
  • Is your child crying a lot? Does your child seem inconsolable?
  • Is the anxiety occurring regularly? Are the symptoms increasing?
  • Is your child becoming socially isolated? Is your child avoiding social situations or school?
  • Are there sudden changes in your child’s academic achievement or behavior?
  • Is your child unusually irritable?
  • Have these symptoms persisted over a few months?
  • Is the anxiety interfering with social, emotional, or behavioral functioning?


The two most common forms of treatment for anxiety are cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and medication, usually selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors like fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline and paroxetine. Research has consistently demonstrated that cognitive-behavioral therapy and pharmacological therapies are most effective when used in conjunction with each other. Chansky (2014) does not recommend medication without concurrent cognitive-behavioral therapy.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

Cognitive-behavioral therapy is based on the idea that feelings can be affected by our thoughts and behaviors. Thoughts are internal ways in which we talk to ourselves, and behaviors are the actions we take in everyday life.

Unhelpful thoughts and unhelpful behaviors lead to negative feelings, whereas helpful thoughts and helpful behaviors are related to positive feelings. It is cyclical: feelings lead to thoughts, which then lead certain actions (that is, behavior). Behavior can lead to negative thoughts and negative feelings. Negative thoughts can lead to negative behaviors and then negative feelings.

“The take home message is that understanding our feelings and how they affect us can lead us to do something to prevent our feelings from getting the better of us. We cannot make our feelings just go away, we can manage them. This can be accomplished by expressing our feelings…or by changing our thinking and behaving.”

Children who suffer from anxiety need to learn to think helpful and positive thoughts. The basis of treatment for children who suffer from anxiety is helping them understand that they can change their thinking patterns.

Medication

When is medication necessary? A pediatrician or psychiatrist needs to make that assessment and discuss the pros and cons of medication.

Medication is generally used when the level of anxiety is so high that the child is unable to use the skills that the therapist is attempting to teach the child. If medication is prescribed, parents need to know that it is not a “life sentence” and that their child might not always need to be on medication.

As noted earlier, the most common and demonstrably effective medications for childhood anxiety are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors like fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline and paroxetine. Also – again as noted earlier – they are most effective when used in combination with cognitive-behavioral therapy.

While the primary focus of this course is on behavioral interventions for children with anxiety disorders, some readers may be interested in more information on pharmacological treatment. For those interested, a NIMH article on multimodal treatment of child/adolescent anxiety can be found at the following website: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4695375/

Click here to learn more.

Anxiety in ChildrenAnxiety in Children is a 4-hour online continuing education (CE/CEU) course that focuses on behavioral interventions for children with anxiety disorders. According to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America (2017), it is estimated that 40 million Americans suffer from anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders affect one in eight children, but is often not diagnosed. Untreated anxiety can lead to substance abuse, difficulties in school, and depression. Professionals who work with children, including speech language pathologists, mental health professionals, and occupational therapists, frequently encounter anxiety disorders among their young clients. This course is intended to help clinicians recognize and understand the anxiety disorders that frequently occur in children and learn a wide variety of communication and behavioral strategies for helping their clients manage their anxiety. Included are sections on types and causes of anxiety disorders, strategies for prevention, evidence-based treatments, techniques for helping children manage worry, relaxation techniques for use with children, and detailed discussions on school anxiety and social anxiety. Course #40-43 | 2017 | 69 pages | 25 posttest questions


This online course provides instant access to the course materials (PDF download) and CE test. After enrolling, click on My Account and scroll down to My Active Courses. From here you’ll see links to download/print the course materials and take the CE test (you can print the test to mark your answers on it while reading the course document). Successful completion of the online CE test (80% required to pass, 3 chances to take) and course evaluation are required to earn a certificate of completion.
Professional Development Resources is approved to sponsor continuing education by the American Psychological Association (APA); the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC ACEP #5590); the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB Provider #1046, ACE Program); the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA Provider #3159); the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA Provider #AAUM); the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR Provider #PR001); the Alabama State Board of Occupational Therapy; the Florida Boards of Social Work, Mental Health Counseling and Marriage and Family Therapy (#BAP346), Psychology & School Psychology (#50-1635), Dietetics & Nutrition (#50-1635), Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, and Occupational Therapy Practice (#34); the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board (#RCST100501) and the Board of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology; the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs (#193); and the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists (#114) and State Board of Social Worker Examiners (#5678).

Promoting Self-Efficacy in Children

Course excerpt from Building Resilience in your Young Client

Promoting Self-Efficacy in ChildrenSelf-efficacy is a belief about what a person can do and how well he or she can do it. Self-efficacy is a multidimensional construct and is possibly the most central mechanism of human agency—the ability to influence intentionally one’s functioning and life circumstances. It determines how environmental opportunities and impediments are perceived and therefore influences peoples’ goals, values, and behavior.

A resilient child is able to influence the environment in which he lives. This is part of self-efficacy, and it can be accomplished by seeking ways in which to foster a child’s independence and encourage his autonomy.

Here are 10 ways to promote self-efficacy in children:

1. Promoting Self-Efficacy by Giving Choices

Giving children choices hands some control over to the child without compromising the adult’s authority – a win/win situation. Implicit in the choice is the fact that the child needs to fulfill the task, but gets to choose how it will be accomplished. Giving choices can diffuse conflict and allow children to assert their independence in a healthy way. It exercises their brains by making them think and solve problems. It is an extremely effective technique to use with independent, defiant children and toddlers.

2. Promoting Self-Efficacy by Grading the Experience

Parents and clinicians want to challenge their children within their abilities.

3. Promoting Self-Efficacy by Identifying and Reinforcing Competence

We can point out to children their accomplishments.

4. Promoting Self-Efficacy by Valuing Play

Play is an integral part of building resilience in children. It could be argued that active play is so central to child development that it should be included in the very definition of childhood. Play offers more than cherished memories of growing up; it allows children to develop creativity and imagination while developing physical, cognitive, and emotional strengths. …..Play is a natural tool that children can and should use to build their resilience. At its core, the development of resilience is about learning to overcome challenges and adversity…. children learn to deal with social challenges and navigate peer relationships on the playground. In addition, even small children use imaginative play and fantasy to take on their fears and create or explore a world they can master. Play allows them to create fantasy heroes that conquer their deepest fears. It allows them to practice adult roles, sometimes while playing with other children and sometimes while play-acting with adults. Sensitive adults can observe this play and recognize the fears and fantasies that need to be addressed; however, in many cases, play itself helps children meet their own needs. As they experience mastery of the world they create, children develop new competencies that lead to enhanced confidence and the resilience they need to address future challenges.

5. Promoting Self-Efficacy by Showing Respect for a Child’s Struggle

Telling a child that something is easy often leads to a double-edged discouragement. If he completes the tasks, then he merely did something “easy” and it is not much of an accomplishment. If he can’t succeed, then he has failed at something that should have been easy. If we show respect for a child’s struggle and say “this can be hard,” or “it is not so simple,” then we send him the message that if he does succeed it is a meaningful accomplishment. If he fails, at least he knows he made the effort on a difficult task.

6. Promoting Self-Efficacy by Showing Respect for a Child’s Eventual Readiness

Instead of disregarding children’s fears and hesitancy, acknowledge the child’s timetable.

7. Promoting Self-Efficacy by Encouraging Children to Think of Their Own Answers

Instead of rushing to answer questions, encourage the child to think of her own answers. Children often use questions to initiate verbal interactions. They may have already thought about the answers, and get bored when we answer their questions too soon.

8. Promoting Self-Efficacy by Letting Children Dream

Children love to dream. It is one of the greatest pleasures of childhood. They need adults with a listening ear. This helps gain our client’s trust and helps create and maintain strong client relationships. Hopes and dreams are a great topic for a language lesson.

9. Promoting Self-Efficacy by Celebrating Mistakes

Adults need to let children make mistakes and learn from them. We need to watch them struggle with and settle their own problems. We also need to let them do as much as they can for themselves. Treat children responsibly so they can function on their own.

It is hard to let children make their own mistakes. We feel, “If they would just listen to us then they would not have to suffer from their mistakes.” Allowing them to do for themselves sometimes makes more work for us. “If I let them pour the juice, it can spill. If I do it, it won’t.”

One important life skill is learning to recognize our mistakes, repair them and grow from them. Parents often fear allowing their children to move forward in life and make mistakes. We want to protect them. However, children who are not allowed to make mistakes can become fearful of making the smallest decisions, may be hesitant to solve problems and afraid to try new experiences. We want to promote resilience in our children. Resilient children make mistakes, get up, brush themselves off, and move on.

10. Promoting Self-Efficacy by Teaching Children Perseverance

Teaching kids to persevere and keep trying when the going gets tough is an important factor in promoting resilience. The ability to keep trying when we don’t succeed aids us in developing solution-oriented thinking patterns.

We all know stories of successful people who failed many times before reaching their goals. Making mistakes and using them as opportunities is an essential part of learning how to cope, grow and finally succeed. It is important to teach children that to achieve expertise in any area it takes many little steps and a lot of practice.

When children are having trouble with any given task it is crucial that we encourage them to keep on trying. When a baby is learning to walk we clap and smile for each step that they take, no matter if they fall. We need to have the same attitude when our children learn to pour milk and spill, do a puzzle and get frustrated, start a homework task and find themselves overwhelmed.

Click here to learn more.

Building Resilience in your Young ClientBuilding Resilience in your Young Client is a 3-hour online continuing education (CE/CEU) course that offers a wide variety of resilience interventions that can be used in therapy, school, and home settings. It has long been observed that there are certain children who experience better outcomes than others who are subjected to similar adversities, and a significant amount of literature has been devoted to the question of why this disparity exists. Research has largely focused on what has been termed “resilience.” Health professionals are treating an increasing number of children who have difficulty coping with 21st century everyday life. Issues that are hard to deal with include excessive pressure to succeed in school, bullying, divorce, or even abuse at home. This course provides a working definition of resilience and descriptions of the characteristics that may be associated with better outcomes for children who confront adversity in their lives. It also identifies particular groups of children – most notably those with developmental challenges and learning disabilities – who are most likely to benefit from resilience training. Course #30-98 | 2017 | 53 pages | 20 posttest questions

Professional Development Resources is approved to sponsor continuing education by the American Psychological Association (APA); the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC ACEP #5590); the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB Provider #1046, ACE Program); the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA Provider #3159); the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA Provider #AAUM); the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR Provider #PR001); the Alabama State Board of Occupational Therapy; the Florida Boards of Social Work, Mental Health Counseling and Marriage and Family Therapy (#BAP346), Psychology & School Psychology (#50-1635), Dietetics & Nutrition (#50-1635), Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, and Occupational Therapy Practice (#34); the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board (#RCST100501) and the Board of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology; the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs (#193); and the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists (#114) and State Board of Social Worker Examiners (#5678).

 

Building Resilience in your Young Client

Updated CE Course @pdresources.org

Professional Development Resources has a newly revised online continuing education (CE/CEU) course available that offers a wide variety of resilience interventions for children. SLPs: This course has been renewed with ASHA and will now count as a new course on your transcript:

Building Resilience in your Young ClientBuilding Resilience in your Young Client is a 3-hour online continuing education (CE/CEU) course that offers a wide variety of resilience interventions that can be used in therapy, school, and home settings. It has long been observed that there are certain children who experience better outcomes than others who are subjected to similar adversities, and a significant amount of literature has been devoted to the question of why this disparity exists. Research has largely focused on what has been termed “resilience.” Health professionals are treating an increasing number of children who have difficulty coping with 21st century everyday life. Issues that are hard to deal with include excessive pressure to succeed in school, bullying, divorce, or even abuse at home. This course provides a working definition of resilience and descriptions of the characteristics that may be associated with better outcomes for children who confront adversity in their lives. It also identifies particular groups of children – most notably those with developmental challenges and learning disabilities – who are most likely to benefit from resilience training. Course #30-98 | 2017 | 53 pages | 20 posttest questions


This online course provides instant access to the course materials (PDF download) and CE test. After enrolling, click on My Account and scroll down to My Active Courses. From here you’ll see links to download/print the course materials and take the CE test (you can print the test to mark your answers on it while reading the course document). Successful completion of the online CE test (80% required to pass, 3 chances to take) and course evaluation are required to earn a certificate of completion.

Professional Development Resources is approved by the American Psychological Association (APA) to sponsor continuing education for psychologists; by the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC ACEP #5590); the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB Provider #1046, ACE Program); the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA Provider #3159); the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA Provider #AAUM); the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR Provider #PR001); the Alabama State Board of Occupational Therapy; the Florida Boards of Social Work, Mental Health Counseling and Marriage and Family Therapy (#BAP346), Psychology & School Psychology (#50-1635), Dietetics & Nutrition (#50-1635), Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, and Occupational Therapy Practice (#34); the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board (#RCST100501) and the Board of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology; the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs (#193); and the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists (#114) and State Board of Social Worker Examiners (#5678).