Effects of Cyberbullying

Course excerpt from Cyberbullying

CyberbullyCyberbullying is intentional, repeated harm to another person using communication technology. Any communication device may be used to harass or intimidate a victim, such as a cell phone, tablet, or computer. Any communication platform may host cyberbullying: social media sites (Facebook, Twitter), applications (Snapchat, AIM), websites (forums or blogs), and any place where one person can communicate with – or at – another person electronically. The short and long-term effects of bullying are considered as significant as neglect or maltreatment as a type of child abuse (Takizawa, 2014).

Cyberbullying does not happen in a vacuum. The victim has other life events that impact emotional and social functioning. The effects of cyberbullying should be viewed in the light of other childhood adversities: abuse, neglect, family dysfunction, loss of a parent, and other life-changing events (Takizawa, 2014). Research has been able to identify patterns of effects due to cyberbullying, some of which last for a lifetime.

In a review of research on cyberbullying, Kowalski and colleagues (2014) found the effects of experiencing cyberbullying include the following:

  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Substance abuse
  • Decreased performance in school, absenteeism, and dropping out of school
  • Increased physical symptoms
  • Suicide


The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP, 2011) also noted that bullying could result in somatic issues such as headaches and stomach aches, as well as eating disorders, alcohol and drug use.

Barlett (2014a) found similar results, with anger, sadness, fearfulness, as well as increased aggressive behavior found in victims of cyberbullying. Kowalski also found a link between an increase in symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety related to duration of hours spent on the Internet. The authors note that the directionality of this association “clearly bears scrutiny, but the association appears robust.” It would seem that more time online would increase the person’s risk of exposure to bullying behavior, with its negative emotional consequences.

Sampasa-Kanyinga (2014) noted a reciprocal relationship between bullying victimization and depression. The authors state, “Bullying victimization can cause depression, and depressive symptoms may place some youths at increased risk for victimization.” Victims who also bully others are at a higher risk of depression (Copeland, 2013). Copeland also found bully-victims exhibited increased generalized anxiety and panic. Female bully-victims in particular were at risk for agoraphobia.

Not surprisingly, school age students may avoid school due to bullying. Many students reported skipping school due to safety concerns. Steiner (2014) found that high school students who experienced bullying in person or online were far more likely to miss school, as you can see from these results:

  • 21% of high school students bullied both in person and electronically reported missing school due to safety concerns
  • 13% of those bullied in-person only missed school
  • 11% of those bullied electronically only missed school


As a comparison, 4% of students who had not been bullied missed school due to safety concerns. Steiner notes that the results are equivalent to more than half a million of the 16 million enrolled high school students missing school days because they were afraid of being bullied at school.

The effects of childhood bullying can be felt as the victim ages. Copeland (2013) reported psychiatric symptoms in adult victims of bullying that included depression, antisocial personality disorder, anxiety, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation as well as suicide attempts. In a longitudinal study of over 7,700 people who were bullied as children, Takizawa (2014) found significant psychiatric distress in bullying victims during follow-up at ages 23 and 50. Depression, anxiety, and suicidality were increased, and were especially evident in those who were bullied frequently. Cognitive functioning was negatively affected, even after controlling for childhood IQ.

Takizawa also found that the long-lasting effects of bullying included the risk for decreased social relationships, economic difficulty, and poor quality of life. The risk was similar to children placed in foster care or who experienced multiple childhood adversities. Adults who were bullied as children were more likely to have lower educational levels and men had higher unemployment rates. These adults also had a high risk of living without a partner or spouse. They were less likely to have met with friends in the recent past, and reported fewer social supports.

It was interesting that this long-term study as well as Copeland’s (2013) results did not find a risk of alcohol dependence as a result of childhood bullying. The authors theorize that peer influence guides teens into drinking behavior. Since bullying victims are less exposed to peer influences in this way, alcohol abuse may be less of a risk.

The overall effects seen in long-term follow-up are thought to be partially a result of re-victimization. Finkelhor (2007) studied children exposed to violence and found that victimization of one type can lead to a significant risk of vulnerability to other types of victimization.

CyberbullyingCyberbullying is a 2-hour online continuing education (CE/CEU) course that reviews evidenced-based research for identification, management and prevention of cyberbullying in children, adolescents and adults. Bullies have moved from the playground and workplace to the online world, where anonymity can facilitate bullying behavior. Cyberbullying is intentional, repeated harm to another person using communication technology. It is not accidental or random. It is targeted to a person with less perceived power. This may be someone younger, weaker, or less knowledgeable about technology. Any communication device may be used to harass or intimidate a victim, such as a cell phone, tablet, or computer. Any communication platform may host cyberbullying: social media sites (Facebook, Twitter), applications (Snapchat, AIM), websites (forums or blogs), and any place where one person can communicate with – or at – another person electronically. The short and long-term effects of bullying are considered as significant as neglect or maltreatment as a type of child abuse. This course will describe specific cyberbullying behaviors, review theories that attempt to explain why bullying happens, list the damaging effects that befall its victims, and discuss strategies professionals can use to prevent or manage identified cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is a fast-growing area of concern and all healthcare professionals should be equipped to spot the signs and provide support for our patients and clients, as well as keep up with the technology that drives cyberbullying. Course #21-09 | 2016 | 32 pages | 20 posttest questions

This online course provides instant access to the course materials (PDF download) and CE test. After enrolling, click on My Account and scroll down to My Active Courses. From here you’ll see links to download/print the course materials and take the CE test (you can print the test to mark your answers on it while reading the course document). Successful completion of the online CE test (80% required to pass, 3 chances to take) and course evaluation are required to earn a certificate of completion. Click here to learn more.

Professional Development Resources is approved to sponsor continuing education by the American Psychological Association (APA); the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC ACEP #5590); the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB Provider #1046, ACE Program); the American Speech-Language Hearing Association (ASHA); the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA Provider #3159); the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR Provider #PR001); the Alabama State Board of Occupational Therapy; the Florida Boards of Social Work, Mental Health Counseling and Marriage and Family Therapy (#BAP346), Psychology & School Psychology (#50-1635), Dietetics & Nutrition (#50-1635), and Occupational Therapy Practice (#34); the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board (#RCST100501); the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs (#193); and the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists (#114) and State Board of Social Worker Examiners (#5678).

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Cyberbully image created by Jcomp – Freepik.com

Executive Functioning: Teaching Children Organizational Skills

New Online CE Course @pdresources.org

Executive Functioning: Teaching Children Organizational SkillsExecutive Functioning: Teaching Children Organizational Skills is a 4-hour online continuing education (CE/CEU) course that will enumerate and illustrate multiple strategies and tools for helping children overcome executive functioning deficits and improve their self-esteem and organizational abilities.

Executive functioning skills represent a key set of mental assets that help connect past experience with present action. They are fundamental to performing activities such as planning, organizing, strategizing, paying attention to and remembering details, and managing time and space. Conversely, executive functioning deficits can significantly disrupt an individual’s ability to perform even simple tasks effectively. Although children with executive functioning difficulties may be at a disadvantage at home and at school, adults can employ many different strategies to help them succeed. Included are techniques for planning and prioritizing, managing emotions, improving communication, developing stress tolerance, building time management skills, increasing sustained attention, and boosting working memory. Course #40-42 | 2017 | 76 pages | 25 posttest questions

Click here to learn more.

This online course provides instant access to the course materials (PDF download) and CE test. After enrolling, click on My Account and scroll down to My Active Courses. From here you’ll see links to download/print the course materials and take the CE test (you can print the test to mark your answers on it while reading the course document). Successful completion of the online CE test (80% required to pass, 3 chances to take) and course evaluation are required to earn a certificate of completion. Click here to learn more.
Professional Development Resources is approved by the American Psychological Association (APA) to sponsor continuing education for psychologists; by the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC ACEP #5590); the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB Provider #1046, ACE Program); the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA Provider #3159); the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA Provider #AAUM); the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR Provider #PR001); the Alabama State Board of Occupational Therapy; the Florida Boards of Social Work, Mental Health Counseling and Marriage and Family Therapy (#BAP346), Psychology & School Psychology (#50-1635), Dietetics & Nutrition (#50-1635), Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, and Occupational Therapy Practice (#34); the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board (#RCST100501) and the Board of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology; the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs (#193); and the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists (#114) and State Board of Social Worker Examiners (#5678).

Recognizing Ethical Dilemmas

Course excerpt from Ethical Decision Making for Psychologists: A Practical Model

From time to time, psychologists are confronted with ethical dilemmas that are difficult to resolve. How do you know when an ethical issue arises that requires action on your part? What do you think are some of the characteristics of ethical dilemmas as they apply to psychotherapy? It does not take very long to answer these questions.

Recognizing Ethical Dilemmas

From time to time, psychologists are confronted with ethical dilemmas that are difficult to resolve.Kidder (1995) suggests that ethical dilemmas oftentimes involve right versus wrong choices or “moral temptations.” This certainly applies to a variety of situations including becoming involved in sexual relationships with clients, falsifying data, failing to be up front with clients about policies or procedures pertaining to the psychotherapy process, and using therapeutic techniques without having been trained in the use of those techniques. Most psychologists have either dealt with or thought about situations that make them question what the right thing to do is.

Denise and Andrew were certainly confronted with ethical dilemmas in slightly different ways. You can probably place yourself in their shoes and understand how they must have felt in their respective situations especially being new to the field: confused, surprised, and perhaps overwhelmed. In fact, recognizing ethical dilemmas oftentimes starts with a feeling, specifically, an awareness that you are feeling uncomfortable or uneasy.

Indeed, it is not uncommon for one’s unconscious self to pick up on and react to elements of a situation that one’s conscious self may overlook or fail to react to as quickly. This is not unlike the action of antivirus software, continually monitoring activities that are going on in the background of our computers while we are surfing the net. Although there may be times you are cognizant of the dilemma that aroused these feelings, other times you may realize that something is not right about a situation, but not necessarily be able to put your finger on it until you give it more thought. But it is the realization that “something’s not right” and the associated feeling that is your initial clue that you are dealing with an ethical dilemma.

It is important for you to be tuned in to the feelings that are kindled by ethical dilemmas and to use your feelings as data in the ethical decision-making process. Indeed, Remley and Herlihy (2007) point out that, “Virtue ethicists believe that emotion informs judgment.” They likewise provide the following advice: “Consider what emotions you are experiencing as you contemplate the situation and your possible actions…Your emotions can help guide you in your decision making” (pg. 13).

Think back to when you were a child. Did you parents ever tell you that everyone has a little voice inside that helps us distinguish right from wrong? Some people refer to this as a conscience. The same principle applies to recognizing ethical dilemmas. You might have a gut-level feeling that a situation is somehow problematic and demands action on your part. Although you may not know what you are supposed to do at that moment, you realize that “something’s wrong,” and that feeling does not go away. The emotional uneasiness produced by the dilemma yearns for a response from you to, in essence, put it out of its misery. Knapp and VandeCreek (2006) note that, “…for many psychologists the first indication of a problem comes from their own ‘gut’ reactions or the reactions of a patient. That is, a strain in interpersonal relationships or a feeling of emotional uneasiness is often the first indication of an ethical problem” (pg. 43).

Recognizing ethical dilemmas not only becomes easier with supervision and experience, but if the foundation of your professional identity is the six moral principles, then you will understand intuitively when an issue arises that demands sound reasoning and judgment. There is not one particular moral principle that will help you recognize an ethical dilemma. Psychologists continuously filter experiences through their moral principle net, and when issues get caught in the net they experience a twinge of discomfort that spurs the reasoning and resolution process.

Hare (1991) argues that moral reasoning starts with intuition: “…the intuitive level, with its prima facie duties and principles, is the main locus of everyday moral decisions” (p. 35). Cottone and Tarvydas (2007) likewise note that “The intuitive level of analysis always constitutes the first platform of decision making, even when the situation requires the more detailed level of analysis involved in the critical-evaluative level of consideration” (p. 91). The important point is that intuition is simply a starting point. Psychologists are trained to be self-aware so that they are sensitive to issues that should be addressed with clients. When considered in terms of a scientific process, intuition serves to generate hypotheses that can be confirmed or disconfirmed as psychologists interact with clients throughout the course of the psychotherapy process and discuss ethical concerns with colleagues.

Let’s take into consideration how this might work in the real world. Two psychologists have psychotherapy clients who both suffer from depression. Psychologist A, who is fresh out of graduate school, is concerned that his client is becoming too dependent on him given that the client calls him at home at all hours of the night and will do whatever he tells him to do. Psychologist B, who has been in the field for several years, is also dealing with a depressed client with dependency issues, but has taken a different approach. Psychologist B has placed limits on the number of calls she is willing to receive from the client and has requested that the client not call her at home.

How do the moral principles play a part in the reasoning processes of both psychologists? Psychologist A recognizes that something is wrong, but his moral principle net is “too loose” to catch the problem. Psychologist B understands that allowing the client to call her at home as often as he would like only fosters dependency and is not in the client’s best interests (the moral principle of beneficence or “helpfulness”). Although the client does not like the fact that Psychologist B has placed limits on him, he reluctantly agrees to abide by the rules. Psychologist B felt uncomfortable the first time the client attempted to maneuver into a dependency role and that feeling sparked a response that prevented her from enabling this behavior. But it was only because the discomfort was interpreted in relation to the moral principle of beneficence that Psychologist B understood why it was necessary to set limits.

Learn more:

Ethical Decision Making for PsychologistsEthical Decision Making for Psychologists: A Practical Model is a 3-hour online continuing education (CE) course that provides psychologists with an intuitive method of resolving ethical dilemmas that is grounded in best practices as outlined in the professional literature as well as the APA Code of Ethics. Topics include the differences between ethics and the law, identifying moral principles which underlie the ethical practice of psychotherapy, and how to apply a practical approach to ethical decision-making. The course is written in a conversational style and includes mnemonics to assist in learning the material and drawing upon this knowledge as necessary when ethical dilemmas arise throughout one’s career. Closeout Course #30-41 | 2009 | 32 pages | 24 posttest questions

Professional Development Resources is approved by the American Psychological Association (APA) to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. Professional Development Resources maintains responsibility for this program and its content. Professional Development Resources is also approved by the Florida Board of Psychology and the Office of School Psychology (CE Broker Provider #50-1635).

 

Animal-Assisted Therapy – Online CE Course

By Deirdre Rand, PhD

Animal-Assisted Therapy and the Healing Power of PetsAnimal-Assisted Therapy and the Healing Power of Pets is a 2-hour online continuing education (CE) course that includes the story of Dr. Deirdre Rand’s journey with her animal companions and the lessons learned from the challenges and rewards of those relationships. Also discussed are temperament, socialization and training; the role of the neurohormone oxytocin in strengthening the human-companion animal bond; the founding of the three major organizations which register volunteer handler/therapy teams, along with the contributions of key historic figures in developing animal-assisted therapy as we know it today; examples of animal-assisted interventions with dogs, cats and other animals; and attributes of a great therapy animal and a great handler. Course #30-85 | 2016 | 45 pages | 26 posttest questions

Animal-Assisted Therapy and the Healing Power of Pets provides an essential foundation to anyone interested in animal-assisted intervention work, whether as a healthcare professional or as a volunteer therapy animal team with their dog or cat. Dr. Rand uses a narrative writing style, supplemented with photographs, to give the reader a deeper, more experiential understanding of the material and makes for a good read. The course includes numerous clinical examples, evoking an awareness of the unique bond between people and their companion animals.” – Endorsement by Aubrey H. Fine, EdD, author of Our Faithful Companions: Exploring the Essence of our Kinship with Animals.

This online course provides instant access to the course materials (PDF download) and CE test. After enrolling, click on My Account and scroll down to My Active Courses. From here you’ll see links to download/print the course materials and take the CE test (you can print the test to mark your answers on it while reading the course document). Successful completion of the online CE test (80% required to pass, 3 chances to take) and course evaluation are required to earn a certificate of completion. Click here to learn more.

Professional Development Resources is approved by the American Psychological Association (APA) to sponsor continuing education for psychologists; the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC ACEP #5590); the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB #1046, ACE Program); the Florida Boards of Clinical Social Work, Marriage & Family Therapy, and Mental Health Counseling (#BAP346) and Psychology & School Psychology (#50-1635); the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board (#RCST100501); the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs (#193); and the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists (#114) and State Board of Social Worker Examiners (#5678).

Learn How to Use Humor as a Tool

April is National Humor Month

National Humor MonthNational Humor Month was founded in 1976 by comedian and best-selling author Larry Wilde, Director of The Carmel Institute of Humor. It is designed to heighten public awareness on how the joy and therapeutic value of laughter can improve health, boost morale, increase communication skills and enrich the quality of one’s life.

“Since April is often bleak and grim and taxes are due on the 15th, it can be one of the most stressful times of the year,” says Wilde, author of 53 books on the subject of humor. “Besides,” adds Wilde, “it’s the only month that begins with All Fool’s Day — a day which has sanctioned frivolity and pranks ever since the 1500’s.”

Humor as a tool to lift ailing spirits is an established notion supported by scientific research. The curative power of laughter and its ability to relieve debilitating stress and burnout may indeed be one of the great medical discoveries of our times.

The Use of Humor in TherapyThe Use of Humor in Therapy is a 2-hour online continuing education (CE) course by Dr. Louis R. Franzini that reviews the risks and benefits of using humor in therapy and the relevant historical controversies of this proposal.

Should therapists and counselors use humor as a therapeutic technique? If so, should they be formally trained in those procedures before their implementation? The paucity of rigorous empirical research on the effectiveness of this form of clinical intervention is exceeded only by the absence of any training for those practitioners interested in applying humor techniques. In this course a representative sample of its many advocates’ recommendations to incorporate humor in the practice of psychological therapies is reviewed.

Therapeutic humor is defined, the role of therapists’ personal qualities is discussed, and possible reasons for the profession’s past resistance to promoting humor in therapy are described. Research perspectives for the evaluation of humor training are presented with illustrative examples of important empirical questions still needing to be answered. Course #21-02 | 2015 | 24 pages | 14 posttest questions

This online course provides instant access to the course materials (PDF download) and CE test. After enrolling, click on My Account and scroll down to My Active Courses. From here you’ll see links to download/print the course materials and take the CE test (you can print the test to mark your answers on it while reading the course document). Successful completion of the online CE test (80% required to pass, 3 chances to take) and course evaluation are required to earn a certificate of completion.

Click here to learn more.

Professional Development Resources is approved by the American Psychological Association (APA) to sponsor continuing education for psychologists; the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC ACEP #5590); the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB Provider #1046, ACE Program); the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA Provider #3159); the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR Provider #PR001); the Florida Boards of Social Work, Mental Health Counseling and Marriage and Family Therapy (#BAP346), Psychology & School Psychology (#50-1635), Dietetics & Nutrition (#50-1635), and Occupational Therapy Practice (#34); the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board (#RCST100501); the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs (#193); and the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists (#114) and State Board of Social Worker Examiners (#5678).

Alzheimer’s Caregiver Guide Approved for ASHA CEUs

By the National Institute on Aging (NIA)

Alzheimer's Caregiver Guide and Tips on Acute HospitalizationAlzheimer’s Caregiver Guide and Tips on Acute Hospitalization is a new online continuing education course approved by ASHA for 0.1 CEUs. This course is presented in two parts. Part 1 offers strategies for managing the everyday challenges of caring for a person with Alzheimer’s disease, a difficult task that can quickly become overwhelming. Research has shown that caregivers themselves often are at increased risk for depression and illness. Each day brings new challenges as the caregiver copes with changing levels of ability and new patterns of behavior. Many caregivers have found it helpful to use the strategies described in this course for dealing with difficult behaviors and stressful situations. Part 2 includes tips on acute hospitalization, which presents a new environment filled with strange sights, odors and sounds, changes in daily routines, along with new medications and tests. This section is intended to help professionals and family members meet the needs of hospitalized Alzheimer’s patients by offering facts about Alzheimer’s disease, communication tips, personal care techniques, and suggestions for working with behaviors and environmental factors in both the ER and in the hospital room. Course #10-81 | 2010 | 17 pages | 7 posttest questions

Click here to learn more!

This online course provides instant access to the course materials (PDF download) and CE test. Successful completion of the online CE test (80% required to pass, 3 chances to take) and course evaluation are required to earn a certificate of completion. You can print the test (download test from My Courses tab of your account after purchasing) and mark your answers on while reading the course document. Then submit online when ready to receive credit.

Click here to order now!

Professional Development Resources is approved by the American Psychological Association (APA) to sponsor continuing education for psychologists; by the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC ACEP #5590); by the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB Provider #1046, ACE Program); by the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA Provider #3159); by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA Provider #AAUM); by the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR Provider #PR001); by the California Board of Behavioral Sciences (#PCE1625); by the Florida Boards of Social Work, Mental Health Counseling and Marriage and Family Therapy (#BAP346), Psychology & School Psychology (#50-1635), Dietetics & Nutrition (#50-1635), Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, and Occupational Therapy Practice (#34); by the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board (#RCST100501); by the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs (#193); and by the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists (#114) and State Board of Social Worker Examiners (#5678).

 

Biology of Aging – Approved for ASHA CEUs

By the National Institute on Aging (NIA)

Biology of AgingWhat is aging? Can we live long and live well—and are they the same thing? Is aging in our genes? How does our metabolism relate to aging? Can your immune system still defend you as you age? Since the National Institute on Aging was established in 1974, scientists asking just such questions have learned a great deal about the processes associated with the biology of aging. Technology today supports research that years ago would have seemed possible only in a science fiction novel.

Biology of Aging: Research Today for a Healthier Tomorrow is a 2-hour online continuing education (CE/CEU) course that introduces some key areas of research into the biology of aging. Each area is a part of a larger field of scientific inquiry. You can look at each topic individually, or you can step back to see how they fit together, interwoven to help us better understand aging processes. Research on aging is dynamic, constantly evolving based on new discoveries, and so this course also looks ahead to the future, as today’s research provides the strongest hints of things to come. Course #20-85 | 2012 | 30 pages | 15 posttest questions

ASHA-Approved Provider
This course is offered for .2 ASHA CEUs (Introductory level, Professional area).ASHA credit expires 9/14/2017. ASHA CEUs are awarded by the ASHA CE Registry upon receipt of the quarterly completion report from the ASHA Approved CE Provider. Please note that the completion date that appears on ASHA transcripts is the last day of the quarter regardless of when the course was completed.

Professional Development Resources is approved by the Continuing Education Board of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA Provider #AAUM) to provide continuing education activities in speech-language pathology and audiology. See course page for number of ASHA CEUs, instructional level and content area. ASHA CE provider approval does not imply endorsement of course content, specific products or clincial procedures. CEUs are awarded by the ASHA CE Registry upon receipt of the CEU Participant Form from the ASHA Approved CE Provider. Please note that the completion date that appears on ASHA transcripts is the last day of the quarter, regardless of when the course was completed. Professional Development Resources is also approved by the Florida Board of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology and is CE Broker compliant (courses are reported within one week of completion).

Risk Management

Risk Management: Quick Tips I

Risk Management: Quick Tips I

Click on image to view course webpage

This new online continuing education course addresses a variety of risk management topics in the form of seven archived articles from The National Psychologist.

Topics include:

  • Social Networking: How Should Psychologists Respond to Online ‘Friending’ Requests?
    Many who read this article are likely to have a knee-jerk response of, “No way can a therapist accept a friend request from a client under any circumstance!” As with most ethical dilemmas, the avoidance response of “don’t” is not always applicable, as it is not always the correct or most helpful response.
  • Some Additional Thoughts on Social Networking
    Therapists who choose to use social networking and other electronic means as a way to exchange information with clients must deal with the multitude of confidentiality issues and other risk management questions created by doing so. This article reviews the confidentiality, legal and ethical issues involved.
  • Malpractice Insurance 101: Claims-made vs. Occurrence Coverage
    The purpose of this article is to acquaint early career psychologists and those who may be confused about insurance with an important issue to consider when shopping for professional liability coverage: What type of insurance should you buy?
  • Progress Notes: What Not to Write Down
    This article provides suggestions and considerations for what to (and not to) write in your progress notes.
  • Triple Jeopardy: Dangers of an APA Ethics Complaint
    For most psychologists, professional licensure is a prerequisite for their livelihood and professional identity. Most of us know psychologists are in “double jeopardy” when it comes to practice vulnerability. Malpractice lawsuits and complaints before state licensing boards can drastically restrict a psychologist’s ability to practice. This articles reviews the issues and offers suggestions.
  • When Marital Therapy Isn’t & When Marital Therapy Is
    These articles discuss the use of creative billing, to include creative diagnostics, in order to provide marital therapy under an insurance plan.

This course is intended to provide psychotherapists of all specialties with a set of brief, practical tips for dealing with risk management challenges that present themselves in everyday practice. Course #10-42 | 2011 | 13 pages | 8 posttest questions | 1 Hour CE

Ethics in Therapy: Quick Tips I

Ethics in Therapy

Click on image to view course webpage

This new online CE course addresses a variety of ethics topics in the form of seven archived articles from The National Psychologist and is intended to provide psychotherapists of all specialties with a set of brief, practical tips for dealing with ethical dilemmas that present themselves in everyday practice.

Topics Include:

Office ‘Bookstore’ Should Not be for Profit
By Jeffrey E. Barnett, PsyD, ABPP

Psychologists frequently make recommendations to clients for books to read, workbooks and CDs to use, and even movies or television shows to view. In fact, bibliotherapy, the integration of such media into ongoing psychotherapy is a widely used and often highly effective addition to psychotherapy. Learn the issues involved to avoid crossing any boundaries.

Ethical, Effective Marketing for Your Private Practice
By Susan Giurleo, PhD

Many psychologists are cautious, confused and unsure of how to market their work. Many worry that marketing is unethical and something that we should not consider as we pursue a private practice career. Learn effective, ethical marketing techniques you can use to market your practice.

Law Impacts Psychology
By Richard Lawlor, PhD, JD

Over the past several years many articles have appeared in this newspaper for practitioners dealing with various aspects of psychology and the law. Some dealt with a substantive area of psychology and its impact on the law, for example research on children’s memories and the implications for interviewing children and using them as witnesses. Discover the areas of law that psychologists need to be aware of, and understand.

Duty to Warn is Now Duty to Protect
Review by Milton F. Shore, PhD, ABPP

Book review of: The Duty to Protect: Ethical, Legal and Professional Considerations for Mental Health Professionals by Werth, J.L., Welfel, E. and Benjamin, G.A.H. (Eds.) 2009. Washington, D.C. American Psychological Association.

Test Givers Must be Qualified
By Jeffrey E. Barnett, PsyD, ABPP

As a busy professional, it makes great sense to utilize others when it is appropriate to do so. This can be a much more efficient way to work than doing everything yourself. But, the situation is more complex when clinical activities are involved. Learn the ethical issues, laws and regulations for use of non-licensed subordinates in the provision of clinical services.

To Collect or Not to Collect?
By Ofer Zur, PhD

In today’s economy and financial difficulties the questions regarding fees and debt collection from clients seem to be more frequent and more relevant. In times of economic crisis, many people who have lost their homes or jobs understandably seek psychotherapy to better cope with stress due to mounting debt and loss. Explore the relevant professional, relational, clinical, ethical, legal and unintentional consequences aspects of this issue.

Duty to Warn, Protect Differs in HIV Cases
By Jeffrey E. Barnett, PsyD, ABPP

The situation where a client who is HIV-positive or who has AIDS reports having unprotected sex with another person or having done so in the past raises a number of ethical challenges. Explore the relevant issues of informed consent, confidentiality and exceptions to confidentiality, laws concerning the duty to warn and protect when threats of dangerous behavior are made and case law that may impact these areas.

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Alzheimer’s Disease – eUpdate

Studies Find Possible New Genetic Risk Factors for Alzheimer’s Disease

NIH-funded genome-wide association study is largest ever conducted in Alzheimer’s research

from the Alzheimer’s Disease Education and Referral Center:

Studies find possible new genetic risk factors for Alzheimer's Disease

Click on image to view Alzheimer's disease continuing education courses from Professional Development Resources

Scientists have confirmed one gene variant and have identified several others that may be risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of the disorder. In the largest genome-wide association study, or GWAS, ever conducted in Alzheimer’s research, investigators studied DNA samples from more than 56,000 study participants and analyzed shared data sets to detect gene variations that may have subtle effects on the risk for developing Alzheimer’s. The National Institutes of Health funded the study appearing April 3, 2011, in the online issue of Nature Genetics.

“New technologies are allowing us to look at subtle genetic differences among large groups of study participants. By comparing people diagnosed with Alzheimer’s with people free of disease symptoms, researchers are now able to discern elusive genetic factors that may contribute to risk of developing this very devastating disease,” said Richard J. Hodes, M.D., director of the National Institute on Aging (NIA). “We are entering an exciting period of discoveries in genetics that may provide new insights about novel disease pathways that can be explored for development of therapies.”

The Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC), a collaborative body established and funded by the NIA, part of the NIH, coordinated the study. The research reported today involved investigators at universities and research centers across the country. Datasets were funded in part by the NIA, the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the National Center for Research Resources, all part of the NIH. The Alzheimer’s Association, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Wellcome Trust, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and the Canadian Institute of Health Research also lent support. Gerard Schellenberg, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, directs the ADGC, which also received Recovery Act funds in 2009.

Until recently, only one gene variant, Apolipoprotein E-e4 (APOE-e4), had been confirmed as a significant risk factor gene for the common form of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, which typically occurs after age 60. In 2009 and 2010, however, researchers confirmed additional gene variants of CR1, CLU and PICALM as possible risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer’s. This newest GWAS confirms that a fifth gene variant, BIN 1, affects development of late-onset Alzheimer’s. It also identified genetic variants significant for Alzheimer’s at EPHA 1, MS4A, CD2AP, and CD33. The genes identified by this study may implicate pathways involved in inflammation, movement of proteins within cells, and lipid transport as being important in the disease process.

In addition, a second paper appearing online in the journal presented GWAS findings for Alzheimer’s by another scientific team. The United Kingdom-based group, led by Julie Williams, Ph.D., Cardiff University School of Medicine, Wales, found the same genes as risk factors and identified a gene variant ABCA7 as an additional gene of interest. Components of the NIH involved in or supporting the study included the NIA, the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Some private support came through the independent Foundation for the National Institutes of Health.

“Researchers conducting GWAS are looking for genetic variations that may have a smaller effect but still play a role in the disease,” said Schellenberg. “Our findings bring us one step closer to a fuller understanding of the genetic basis of this complex disease, although more study is needed to determine the role these genetic factors may play in the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s.”

Schellenberg said the study was made possible by the research infrastructures established and funded by the NIA, including 29 Alzheimer’s Disease Centers, the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center, the Genetics of Alzheimer’s Disease Data Storage Site, the Late-onset Alzheimer’s Disease Family Study, and the National Cell Repository for Alzheimer’s Disease. They collect, store and make available to qualified researchers DNA samples, datasets containing biomedical and demographic information about participants, and genetic analysis data.

References:

Naj, A.C., et al. Common variants of MS4A4/MS4A6E, CD2AP, CD33 and EPHA 1 are associated with late-onset Alzheimer’s Disease. Nature Genetics. Epub April 3, 2011.

Hollingworth, P., et al. Common variants at ABCA7, MS4A6A/MS4A4E, EPHA 1, CD33 and CD2AP are associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Genetics. Epub April 3, 2011.

The NIA leads the federal government effort conducting and supporting research on aging and the health and well being of older people. For more on health and on aging generally, go to www.nia.nih.gov. The NIA provides information on age-related cognitive change and neurodegenerative disease specifically at its Alzheimer’s Disease Education and Referral (ADEAR) Center at www.nia.nih.gov/Alzheimers. To sign up for e-mail alerts about new findings or publications, please visit either website.

The NIH—The Nation’s Medical Research Agency—includes 27 institutes and centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is the primary federal agency for conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and it investigates the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.

The activities described in this release are being funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). To track the progress of HHS activities funded through the ARRA, visit www.hhs.gov/recovery. To track all federal funds provided through the ARRA, visit www.recovery.gov.