A group of healthy guys recently took on a task some people would envy: They consumed 6,000 calories a day, for science. Now, as a result of this study, scientists say they have a better idea of why people who are obese also tend to develop diabetes.
In the study, six middle-age men who were either normal weight or only slightly overweight volunteered to start eating double what they typically consumed in a day, so they would rapidly gain weight. The men were also confined to hospital beds so they would not get physical activity.
After a week of eating 6,200 calories a day — with a diet rich in carbohydrates and fat that included foods like hamburgers, pizza and cookies — the men gained nearly 8 lbs. (3.5 kilograms), on average. All of this added weight was fat.
The researchers were interested in learning how obesity triggers insulin resistance, a condition in which the body’s cells stop responding to the hormone insulin. Because insulin helps blood sugar get inside cells, insulin resistance leads to a buildup of sugar in the bloodstream, and can cause type 2 diabetes.
Scientists have a number of theories for why obesity leads to insulin resistance, including that obesity increases fatty acids in the blood, or promotes inflammation. But these changes may happen only after a person has been obese for a long time.
The new study allowed researchers to see what happens when a person is in the very early stages of obesity, and to pinpoint the first step in insulin resistance.
In the study, the men developed insulin resistance after just two to three days, the researchers said.
Samples of the participants’ urine and fat tissue showed that there was an increase in oxidative stress in their bodies, which means there was an increase in compounds that are toxic to cells. This oxidative stress caused changes in a protein called GLUT4, which normally helps sugar get inside cells.
The GLUT4 changes may have impaired the ability of this protein to respond to the hormone insulin, thus leading to insulin resistance, the researchers said.
“We may have found the initial events that are responsible for the insulin resistance,” said study researcher Salim Merali, a professor of pharmaceutical sciences at Temple University in Philadelphia.
The new findings suggest that treatments that use antioxidants might help prevent insulin resistance, Merali said.
However, future studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis and to see whether oxidative stress causes other changes that contribute to insulin resistance, the researchers said.
The study was published (Sept. 9) in the journal Science Translational Medicine.
Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how the body uses blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is vital to health because it’s an important source of energy for the cells that make up the muscles and tissues. It’s also the brain’s main source of fuel. Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes — when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes — and gestational diabetes, which occurs during pregnancy but may resolve after the baby is delivered. This course describes the rationale and goals for providing medical nutrition therapy (MNT) for the treatment and prevention of diabetes mellitus. Included are: recommendations for specific nutrient modifications; nutrition assessment, diagnosis, intervention, monitoring and evaluation; exercise and stress; gastropathy; enteral nutrition; testing and classifications; medications and insulin; blood glucose meters; and methods of meal planning. Nutrition education tools and handouts are provided to assist the dietitian in counseling clients.This course was developed by the Florida Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics for their Manual of Medical Nutrition Therapy to provide Licensed and Registered Dietitian/Nutritionists (RDNs) and technicians with evidence-based, non-biased information on nutrition education for diabetes mellitus.
Effective treatment of eating disorders requires multidimensional and individualized interventions. Education that addresses the normal nutritional needs and the physiologic effects of starvation and refeeding is a critical component of treatment. Management often requires long-term nutritional counseling of the patient which may extend several years. This course will describe the rationale and use of providing Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT) for the treatment of Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, and Binge Eating Disorder. Included are: Criteria for Diagnosing Eating Disorders; Role of Dieting in the Development of Eating Disorders; Symptomology; Treatment Overview; Nutrition Therapy; Reconnecting with Hunger and Satiety; Use of Exercise; Working with a Therapist; Pharmacotherapy; In-Patient versus Out-Patient Treatment; Refeeding; Establishing a Dietary/Eating Pattern; Comparing Traditional and Health at Every Size (HAES) Approaches to Health Enhancement; Recovery from Eating Disorders; Nutrition Care Process; and the Core Minimum Guide. This course was developed by the Florida Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics for their Manual of Medical Nutrition Therapy to provide Licensed and Registered Dietitian/Nutritionists (RDNs) and technicians with evidence-based, non-biased information on nutrition for eating disorders.
Susan Moyers, PhD, MPH, LD/N Overweight and obesity constitute one of the nation’s ten leading health indicators with nearly two-thirds of adults in the United States now classified as either overweight or obese. Before any diet and physical activity program can be personalized and implemented, a nutrition assessment is needed, along with an understanding of the individual’s readiness to change and motivation. This course was developed by the Florida Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics for their Manual of Medical Nutrition Therapy to provide Licensed and Registered Dietitian/Nutritionists (RDNs) and technicians with evidence-based, non-biased information on the prevention and treatment of obesity in adults. Topics covered include: obesity synopsis; reimbursement considerations; nutrition assessment (diagnosis, intervention, monitoring and evaluation); pharmacotherapy for weight-loss (prescription and OTC); and physical activity. Nutrition education handouts are included at the end of the course.
Statistics report that Americans are an increasingly overweight population. Among the factors contributing to our struggle to stop tipping the scales is the component of “emotional eating” – or the use of food to attempt to fill emotional needs. Professionals in both the physical and emotional health fields encounter patients with emotional eating problems on a regular basis. Even clients who do not bring this as their presenting problem often have it on their list of unhealthy behaviors that contribute to or are intertwined with their priority concerns. While not an easy task, it is possible to learn methods for dismantling emotional eating habits. The goals of this course are to present information about the causes of emotional eating, and provide a body of cognitive and behavioral exercises that can help to eliminate the addictive pattern.
Professional Development Resources is approved by the American Psychological Association (APA) to sponsor continuing education for psychologists; the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC ACEP #5590); the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB Provider #1046, ACE Program); the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA Provider #3159); the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR Provider #PR001); the Florida Boards of Social Work, Mental Health Counseling and Marriage and Family Therapy (#BAP346), Psychology & School Psychology (#50-1635), Dietetics & Nutrition (#50-1635), and Occupational Therapy Practice (#34); the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker & MFT Board (#RCST100501); the South Carolina Board of Professional Counselors & MFTs (#193); and the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage & Family Therapists (#114) and State Board of Social Worker Examiners (#5678).